Is alkaline water good for you?

Picture source: Medical News Today

History of Alkaline Ionized Water

Research on electrolysed reduced water (ERW) started in the early 1930’s and gained traction in the 1950’s1 when consumers noted positive health consequences. By the 1960’s, then-research attributed that alkalinity in the water was the case.

By the 1970’s, the thesis of alkaline water caught on in much of Asia, with most of the manufacturing happening in Korea by the 1990’s2.

Alkaline water has been a huge phenomena in both the East and the West. There are thousands of sites, blogs and ads claiming that alkaline water is good for the body.

Is it, though? Let’s break it down.

The Truth About Alkaline Water

First, if you google up “alkaline water research”, you will pretty much find no published papers that has indicated the health benefits of alkaline water. The ones that do indicate some potential health benefits with alkaline water are usually older research papers, and oftentimes the alkalinity would come from machines or extra supplementation that generated “Electrolysed Reduced Water”, or ERW. ERW machines more often than not contain hydrogen3.

Baking soda is alkaline. But is it safe to consume a lot of it?

Second, depending on the type of alkalinity, alkaline waters can have very different buffers. Alkaline waters that come from hydrogen (or ERW) machines have weak buffers. Meaning that an adult drinking alkalinized hydrogen water will be fine, as the alkalinity dissolves in the bloodstream very easily.
However, if you stand by the notion that alkaline is good for you, then ingesting baking soda is good for you… right?

Not actually, because baking soda has a strong buffer. Ingesting too much baking soda will actually make you very sick, and your body may suffer from a symptom called alkalosis.

Robert O’Young, the famed author of “The pH Miracle” – and who more than likely ignited the alkaline culture in society today – believes that our body will thrive in an alkaline environment. He has a centre called “The pH Miracle Ranch”, where he treated cancer patients with baking soda4. There is reason to believe that his “sodium bicarbonate drips” did not actually work on patients with cancer5.

In 2017, he was jailed for treating patients without a medical license.

Alkaline, or Hydrogen?

The reason why machines that generate Electrolysed Reduced Water have therapeutic benefits is because of the hydrogen it produces.
So why is it alkaline?

It’s all basic chemistry. When you put electrode plates in the machine and run water into it, the electricity splits the water molecules into two gaseous states and two molecular states.

On the cathode side, hydrogen is produced, as well as hydroxyl ions (which makes the water alkaline) and they come out from the primary tube where you drink the water from.
On the anode side, oxygen as well as hydrogen cations (which make the water acidic) are produced. They come out from the secondary tube that’s not for drinking.

For those who like nerding out:
H2O (cathode) = H2 + OH (alkaline)
H2O (anode) = O2 + H+ (acidic)


In summary, there is no evidence that alkaline water has therapeutic benefits, while plenty of evidence that hydrogen water has therapeutic benefits. With alkaline ionized water, if you take the alkalinity out and put in hydrogen, there will be therapeutic benefits. Conversely, if you take hydrogen out and leave the alkalinity alone, there will be no therapeutic benefits6




Aging, Inflammation and Hydrogen

The Cause of Aging

Everyone understands that the older we are, the less energy we have, the more brittle our bones, and the more sick we get. It’s a matter of life, and a matter of time before we start filling our cupboards with 50 different kinds of supplements.

But what causes aging and our plodding spiral to inevitable mortality?

Simply put, T cell functionality decreases the older we get:

Less neural network in aging T cells (Source: MedicalXpress)

But what causes T cell functionality to decrease?

In short, inflammation.

Increased exposure to our environment (radiation, the foods we consume, pollution) causes inflammation, or oxidative stress. Even breathing causes tiny amounts of inflammation that add up overtime, because oxygen actually causes cells to decrease in functionality via free radicals1.

Three Ways to Slow Down Free Radical Production

While there doesn’t seem to be a way to stop our cells from decreased functionality, there are ways to slow down the process:

1. Exercise

While exercising can cause inflammation in the short-term (typically a few days to a week depending on how strenuous the activity is), in the longer term it lowers inflammation in the body. Research has shown that exercising can reduce inflammation2, thus promoting health.

Photo: Active Health SG

Exercising is also known to have neuroprotective effects3, contributing to reduced risks in dementia.

2. Eating healthy

Unlike the olden days, our foods today are chalked with preservatives and food enhancers. Our drinks are doused in high amounts of sugar and processed chemicals like sodium benzoate. These ingredients cause oxidative stress in the body, which will overtime cease functionality in our cells.

There is no need to completely avoid them, but easing up on processed foods and drinks as much as possible will slow down the decrease in cell functionality.

3. Sleep

One of the most important reasons for sleep is the rejuvenation of brain functionality4. When we don’t get enough sleep,  the neurons in our brain don’t get the opportunity to rewire itself properly, and can result in temporary memory loss, otherwise known as “foggy brain”.
Sleep is also known to be able to remove “waste products” from brain cells.

Sleep is also crucial to the body. Lack of sleep can result in negative health consequences such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure5.

Image taken from

Getting enough sleep will reduce inflammation in the body and build (or rebuild) your immune system. The older you get, the more crucial it is to get adequate hours of sleep.

4. Consuming hydrogen

Not only has tons of research shown hydrogen to have positive effects with various health issues in both humans and animals including Parkinson’s, cancer, infertility and many others, there are a host of research indicating that hydrogen is one of the best antioxidants to free radicals and anti-inflammatory counteragents to oxidative stress.

Because hydrogen is the smallest molecule in the entire universe, it is able to penetrate past  the cell membrane into the mitochondria, and neutralize the free radicals that are being generated from deep within the nucleus of the cell.

Hydrogen has also been found to slow down aging, prolong health and promote flawless skin.

Source: Britannica

For more information on how hydrogen interacts with your immune system, we dedicated a special page explaining the workings of your immune system and the ways hydrogen consumption can benefit your health. Check out:



How hydrogen helps your cells


We have about 30 trillion cells in our body, from tissue cells to nerve cells. All in all they serve a couple hundred different functions.

In this article, we will be summarizing the primary function of the production of a particular free radical from your cells, and the power of hydrogen that is able to eradicate it with positive outcomes for your body.


The Mitochondria


Source Image: Wikipedia

In every cell in your body, there is the mitochondria1. The mitochondria are like the engine of your cell, supplying chemical energy (also known as ATP2) to the cell so that it works as it’s supposed to function.

For example, if the function of the white blood cell is to destroy other viruses, the mitochondria will supply chemical energy via ATP for the cell so that it can attack a foreign virus effectively.

Source: Hyperphysics


                                                                                                                   For general information on B cells and T cells, go here.


Hydroxyl Radical

When your mitochondria are at work, however, it burns out a very toxic free radical called the hydroxyl radical. Just as the engine of your car burns out toxic waste (carbon monoxide) while taking you places, the mitochondria burn out toxic waste (hydroxyl radicals) in order for your cell to function.

Source: AATBIO
Fluorescence images of hydroxyl radical measurement in HeLa cells using MitoROS™ OH580 (Cat#16055).

The hydroxyl radical is one of the most dangerous free radicals in your body because unlike the other free radicals, your body doesn’t produce any antioxidants that can neutralize the hydroxyl radical. And so hydroxyl radicals will attack your various cells, proteins and DNA throughout your lifetime, slowly destroying the vitality and functionality of your cells as the years go by.


How Do We Combat the Hydroxyl Radical?

There are very few solutions in nature that can neutralise the hydroxyl radical. One method confirmed by scientists is the consumption of sweet potatoes.

Source image: Medical News Today

Sweet potatoes are rich in Vitamin A and potassium, and has hydroxyl radical scavenging activity3. One of the caveats to over-consuming sweet potatoes is that your skin and nails could turn orange due to the potassium in the vegetable. Patients with kidney problems should also avoid consuming sweet potatoes4.

What is the best method to combat the hydroxyl radical?

Well, if you know the theme of this site, you know the answer.



Source Image: Utility Analytics Institute


Hydrogen is the smallest molecule in the universe, hence the hydrogen molecule is even smaller than your cells.

This is incredibly helpful as this means that hydrogen is able to penetrate your cells and reach your mitochondria where hydroxyl radicals are being emitted and neutralise them before they can do further damage to your body.

When hydrogen does come in contact with the hydroxyl radical, it becomes water. Thus, various research studies have strongly indicated that inhaling hydrogen or drinking hydrogen water is extremely safe for the body.

Source Image: Superflaška
One molecule of hydrogen (H2) interacts with two molecules of hydroxyl radicals (OH) to produce two molecules of water (H2O)

Deep sea divers inhale hydrogen to combat decompression sickness. Research that has spanned since the 1940’s5 indicated that deep sea divers who over-inhaled on hydrogen experienced no side effects.

Over 1000 research studies on hydrogen have indicated therapeutic effects for over 170 different human and animal disease models, including but not limited to cancer, acid reflux, Parkinson’s, muscle soreness from physical activity, and many more.

The most common ways are inhaling hydrogen and drinking hydrogen water.

There are many ways to combat free radicals and build your immune system. Hydrogen is by far one of the most potent antioxidants we have, as shown by over 1000 independent research studies.


Further Reading

You can look further into hydrogen research at

For further reading, the Hindawi scientific journal published this concise report in 2020:



Why Kangen® machines are the best investment for your health


From the initial research on hydrogen therapeutic benefits in 2007, several hydrogen products have spun out ever since, and there have been increased marketing for said products.

It’s not easy nor cheap to make a good hydrogen product. The engineering of a machine that produces high quality hydrogen requires not just great quality electrode plates, the design also has to accommodate ease of cleaning.

The quality of an Enagic® machine plate (left) vs. another company’s. Just as it’s easier to clean solid drawers than mesh drawers, it’s easier to clean solid plates than mesh plates. The better the design and quality of engineering, the higher and more reliable the hydrogen output.

A decent hydrogen product can produce about 1 ppm of hydrogen. A great hydrogen product can produce up to the saturation rate of 1.6 ppm. Many consumers have reported the difference when the concentration of hydrogen is much higher, at least up to the 1.6ppm mark.

The K8 with a reading of 1.58 ppm. The K8 has achieved a maximum of 1.85 ppm to date.


Kangen® machines have been in the market since the early 1990’s, and was first promoted for its advancement in alkaline and micro-clustering technology1.

Recently, however, some distributors and consumers have discovered that it is in fact not the “micro-clustering” nor the alkalinity, but the high levels of hydrogen concentration that seem to have aided several people to cope with their health issues.

We cover the specifics on how hydrogen is extremely beneficial to the body here and here.

Enagic’s® Competitive Edge

There are four reasons why Kangen® machines outshines its competition:

Enagic® factory in Osaka

1. Besides producing high concentrations of hydrogen, what makes Kangen® machines stand out from its competitors is the longevity of the machine.

This is a typical factory environment of many manufacturers making alkaline/hydrogen machines.

Kangen® machines typically last at least 15-25 years, and several customers have had their machines for even longer when they maintain it well.

This results in the cost of the machines being extremely economical. The top-of-the-line model, the K8, costs less than S$2.00 a day for a household of 4 (filter and cleaning costs included in the price breakdown of 20 years).

The reason why Enagic® machines are so cost-effective is because the consumer is in fact ordering the product straight from the manufacturer, Enagic® itself. Besides the fact that the company is able to perform top-of-the-line quality control, Enagic® also makes all the machine parts and have facilities to build its own machines, therefore they are not subject to supply/demand constraints from other manufacturers. Which leads to our next point.

2. If your machine has exceeded its warranty and there is a part that needs fixing, a dedicated technician can fix the particular part accordingly. This way, you don’t have to replace the entire machine, which is usually the case for most other brands. This saves you thousands of dollars instantly.

3. To date, Enagic® is the only company and manufacturer that has the engineering expertise to incorporate the option for hydrogen drinking water and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) all in the same machine. Every machine comes with the option for hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It is under the “Strong acidic” option.

HOCl is a natural disinfectant that kills 99.9% of germs, bacteria and viruses. It is used in many dental surgical procedures for disinfection. Many consumers have reported that HOCl is very effective in wound healing.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially recommended hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as a sanitizing disinfectant against Covid-192.

This is not to say that the HOCl from Kangen® machines is necessarily effective against the sanitation of Covid-19 per se, as the concentration is most likely lower than that of the EPA recommendation.

However, it is confirmed by independent lab reports that Enagic’s® HOCl is highly effective against many other types of bacteria and viruses including but not limited to staphylococcus, E.coli, and salmonella, just to name a few.

4. Enagic® and TWI Group Enterprise offer something that no other companies offer – an in-person technician that will deep clean your machine yearly at a low cost, for well under S$100.

While Kangen® machines have a built-in self-cleaning feature, Enagic® and TWI Group Enterprise understand that having the machine clean itself is never enough.

It’s the same as keeping your teeth clean and going to see the dentist. We brush our teeth every day, but will still need to go see the dentist for a deep clean every 6-12 months.

Hydrogen Tablets

Those who do deeper research on hydrogen will mention hydrogen tablets on the market. There are a couple of good brands out there ranging from $20-40 for a 30-day supply.
Do note that while tablets generally produce more than 1.6ppm, more hydrogen concentration past the 1.6ppm does not necessarily mean more effective for health.

Enagic’s® top-of-the-line machine, the K8, will cost less than hydrogen tablets over (at least) a 15 year period, that is if you’re just comparing the hydrogen benefits and not including the powerful hypochlorous acid and gentle beauty water (for your skin) that comes with the all-compassing machine.


At TWI, we currently only promote Kangen® machines as our research has shown that other products don’t measure up in terms of technology nor economically.

Contact us if you have any questions!